Archive for the ‘History’ Category

My grandfather - Selwyn Norden

This, as you know, is cast iron blog. I usually post about cooking, or cleaning, or identifying cast iron cookware, or fabulous collections that enthusiasts have shared with us.

Today though, is Veterans’ Day, so instead of talking about cast iron, I will start by talking about my grandfather.

My grandfather’s birthday was July 4, and this year he would have turned 100.

He was an army sergeant in World War 2. He was a Rat of Tobruk, battling Rommel’s forces in Libya, caught a spy, and fought in the jungles of Papua New Guinea, where he contracted malaria and was retired honorably from the Army.

Source: https://www.awm.gov.au

He went on to live a happy, peaceful life as a suburban accountant, raising his family, gardening, volunteering in the community and enjoying a glass of scotch every day at 5pm.

My grandfather, however, was not unscathed. He refused to watch anything on television associated with war. He couldn’t talk about his time fighting the Japanese in the jungles of Papua New Guinea, and there was a very strict rule in our house that under no circumstances could we slam a door of any kind, for he would leap into the air in shock, thinking the house was under attack.

Back in those days, returned soldiers were understood to have missing limbs, or horrific physical scars, but there was no acknowledgement of the psychological wounds that would be inflicted. They were left untreated. We were fortunate enough that my grandfather was able to have a happy life with softly closing doors and judicious changing of the television channel, but others were not so fortunate.

In writing this, I could find plenty of data on the numbers of soldiers killed in the world wars, or how many were wounded, but nothing on suicide rates, or alcoholism, or fractured families or domestic violence of returned combat veterans from that era. There were only whispers in one’s family or village that a person who had returned “was never the same”.

It seems to me that there are many ways for a soldier to die on the battlefield. Your heart doesn’t always have to stop beating, the eyes stop seeing and the limbs stop moving. They may still come home, but they are strangers, both to themselves and their families. The person they were has died. The body may continue on, or it may blow its head off, or hang itself in the barn, but that person died at war.

So today, let us remember, and respect, and thank all our veterans, the living, the thriving, the surviving, and the fallen.

You are all our warriors in the service to our country, and we wouldn’t enjoy the freedoms we do today without you.

Thank you.

Cast-Iron-Guide-Preseasoned-Griswold-Cast-Iron-Collection-640x640

We love estate sales for finding treasures that we can restore, and a great place to find when and where they’re on is EstateSales.Org.

EstateSales.Org also know how awesome vintage cast iron is, and they have not only written a great Vintage Cast Iron Guide, but we’re in it!  They interviewed us, and given us permission to reproduce their blog post below.

After reading, make sure you go visit the original article to talk about your finds, which you can find right here.

Vintage Cast Iron Guide

We see a lot of vintage cast iron at estate sales, and it’s always one of the first things to go. The cast iron trend has been heating up for well over a decade. But what’s the big draw? To learn more about cast iron cookware and why vintage cast iron is worth collecting, we did some research and reached out to the women behind The Pan Handler LLC to find out why it’s so hot.

This is what a collection of vintage Griswold cast iron looks like. Griswold cast iron skillets are great to cook with. Photo courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. Recent Food Trends

Food used to be for sustenance. Now it’s a status symbol. There seem to be a million more cooking shows than there were years ago. There’s even an entire channel dedicated to food. Could this be one reason behind the cast iron craze?

“I think that how food has become a thing is definitely a contributing factor because it’s made more people interested in cooking,” said Anna H, who took over The Pan Handler LCC from Mary T., where she sells vintage and antique cast iron, as well as runs The Pan Handler blog.

Many celebrity chefs prefer cooking with cast iron, and even endorse certain brands, so it makes sense people have jumped on the bandwagon, looking for cast iron at estate sales, in flea markets, and online.

People are also getting savvier about what they put into their bodies and making healthier decisions. Many old unhealthy practices are relics from past decades. Think: microwaves, margarine, and TV dinners. Teflon,too.

While it was great for non-stick cooking, it’s been linked to disease. Cast iron doesn’t leach harmful chemicals into the food. In fact, if it leaches anything, it’s iron, something you could use more of.

Vintage Cast Iron is Highly Collectible

Take it from cast iron collectors who have been at it for awhile. Mary T. even collects vintage stoneware, which is how she first stumbled onto vintage cast iron. She was shopping at Goodwill when she saw a Griswold Gem pan and got curious.

“I didn’t know anything about it, and I kind of just stopped in and bought it. And when I got home and I looked at it, the casting on it was just beautiful, and I liked the markings on it. I liked the way it looked. When I compared it to cast iron of current day, it was such a finer quality, and i just was really drawn to it,” Mary T. said.

Afterwards Mary bought sixty pieces of cast iron on an auction and learned how to clean and season it. It was just the beginning. From there, she started The Pan Handler LLC, a thriving small Internet business. Despite having sold the business to Anna H., Mary continues to blog about vintage cast iron on her new website.

Pre-seasoned vintage cast iron frying pan and lid — Challenge accepted! Estate sale photo. Vintage Cast Iron Is Earth-friendly

Taking care of the environment is important. Ever since the 60s and 70s, cast iron has been popular with the outdoor types and hippies, and now it’s gone mainstream. Because cast iron is so durable, it will last forever.

“I like the idea of reducing, reusing, recycling. So I like the fact that I’m not buying something that’s going to end up in a landfill,” said Mary T.

Why buy a new pot or pan when a cast iron pan cooks just as well (if not better) and will last a lifetime? Its versatility, too, means you don’t need to buy a bunch of “uni-task” tools or cookware.

Cast Iron has a Rich History

Vintage cast iron’s interesting history alone is worth collecting. Cast iron has been around as long as 5 B.C.E, when the Chinese used it for cooking. Cast iron was used all over Europe throughout history, and we still use cast iron Dutch ovens today.

Cast iron also has strong ties to American history when the colonists used cast iron cookware on open fires. Some people are interested in the individual stories of who once owned each piece, and the journey it took to end up in their kitchen.

“I like thinking about where it might have been used, and who might have used it. If you look at The Pan Handler blog, you’ll see a bunch of pictures from the Library of Congress in there and photographs of people using these old pieces of cast iron. . . photographs of tenant farmers that during the Great Depression made little meals on the side of the road in their cast iron,” said Mary T.

She also said Lewis and Clark used cast iron on their big expedition, and that in early America, people would carry their antique cast iron skillets across the country in their covered wagons. Some of them still exist today.

Cast Iron Makes Great Family Heirlooms.

Another reason why cast iron is popular is because they make great family heirlooms. You may have inherited a few pieces yourself and want to continue to pass them on. Or you’re looking to buy vintage cast iron—or possibly even new cast iron—that can stay in the family.

“Besides maybe jewelry, because of modern technology and furniture styles and such, there’s not a lot in terms of family heirlooms can be re-used without appearing out of date,” Anna H pointed out.

“And it’s something that retains its function regardless of what generation you are,” she said.

This Buster Brown waffle iron is an example of the vintage cast iron craftsmanship. Photo courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. Modern vs. Vintage Cast Iron

Not everything new is better, but that doesn’t mean modern cast iron is worthless either. Good quality craftsmanship gives a piece its value, and as with everything else, old jewelry and vintage engagement rings for example, people once had more time to spend on labor, resulting in finer products.

These days, machines have to do the work of artisans since costs are too high to create each piece by hand. While modern cast iron will also last a lifetime and be fully functional, it just won’t have the attention to detail and craft found in vintage.

How was Vintage Cast Iron Made?

In the 1800s and 1900s, all cast iron cookware was made by hand. Sand molds were formed and iron was melted down and usually combined with scrap iron and/ or steel. Then the mixture was hand poured into a mold, which is the “casting” part of “cast” iron. Doing this by hand allowed for more control, resulting in lighter cookware (modern cast iron can be several pounds heavier). Hand pouring was also key to designing more intricate cookware.

Then the iron has to solidify a.k.a. “controlling the cooling curve,” an important part of the process. If something goes wrong during this stage, the entire project can be thrown. Like if gas gets into it and forms bubbles, a common imperfection in older cast iron pieces.

The way cast iron cools also factors into the final product. Low quality cast iron pieces often haven’t been cooled evenly. Quick cooling produces a finer grain, while slow cooling produces a coarse grain. Once you’ve been collecting cast iron for awhile, you learn all the nuances.

After cooling, vintage cast iron cookware would get smoothed down (also by hand) with a grinding stone, or milled, to make the pan’s surface flat and slick. Collectors refer to this as a “mirror” or “satin” finish, which is one way to distinguish a well-loved vintage cast iron piece.

These days, when everything is produced for the bottom line, cast iron is made with a machine, which means the attention to detail when done by hand gets lost. That’s why machine-made modern cast iron has a rough, pebbly surface, and can weigh a ton.

This Minty Griswold cast iron Crispy Corn Stick Pan pan is all the rage at estate sales and another example of bygone craftsmanship. Photo courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. Common Myths about Cast Iron

Lots of myths are out there regarding cast iron, which is bound to happen when anything gets popular. Anna and Mary from The Pan Handler LLC have heard them all. Here are some of the biggest myths out there:

It takes a lot of time and elbow grease to clean and restore vintage cast iron! Photo courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. 1. Cast iron is hard to clean.

Many people steer clear of cast iron because they think it’s difficult to clean and maintain. But that couldn’t be further from the truth! Any cast iron pro will tell you, keeping cast iron clean isn’t rocket science.

“Because the seasoning makes it non-stick, it’s actually a lot easier than a normal pan. So I inherently spend less time cleaning my cast iron that I use every day than I do on any other nonstick or aluminum cookware,” said Anna H.

2. You have to season cast iron when you buy it.

Manufactured cast iron comes seasoned already, and professional cast iron dealers go many lengths to restore and season vintage cast iron before selling it. If you must season it yourself, go ahead. But if you want to get cooking, most cast iron is ready to go.

3. You can never use soap on cast iron.

While we don’t endorse a long soak, a little bit of dish soap won’t hurt your cast iron cookware. This dirty caveat tends to be the thing most people think of when they think about cast iron.

“Sometimes you need a little bit of soap to get some of the more stubborn food particles off,” said Anna H.

“You season your pan every time you cook in it with some fat, so the seasoning builds up over time. And it becomes quite hardy, and it’s going to reseason the next time you cook in it as well, so it’s much better to get the food off your pan and not have it stuck on for the next hundred years than it is to worry about your seasoning,” said Anna H.

She says a drop or two of normal dish soap should do the trick.

These Wagner cast iron roasters found at the O’Neil Family Cast Iron Museum. Photo by S. Lamb Photography, courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. 4. You have to clean and put it away after every use.

If cast iron gets used every day, it might make sense to put them away after every single meal. A simple wipe-down after every use should suffice. Most cast iron is so lovely it doesn’t look bad sitting out, especially for a rustic kitchen look.

“I have a chain mail scrubber that I use to clean them afterwards and I’m not scared of using a drop of soap,” said Anna H who admits her cast iron “lives” on her stove since she uses it so often.

“The most important thing I do is I dry them immediately after I wash them up, and I pop them back on my stove. If I’m going to be using them again in couple of hours, I don’t do anything else. But if say we’re going away, or it might be a couple of days before I cook, then I’ll spray them with Pam, and wipe them down with olive oil once, and let them sit there until the next time I need them,” she said.

5. Some cast iron is beyond restoration.

While it’s true cast iron can be warped, chipped, or pitted from heat, cast iron has to go through quite a lot to not be functional. This is part of its beauty. Mary T, who admittedly has special tools to restore cast iron, shared a story of the toughest piece she had to get back into shape, a piece that had been buried knee deep in a farm yard. Some people might have tossed it—but not her!

“The process I used for removing rust [from cast iron] was typically electrolysis . . . and a lye bath. (1) The first step, I would place the piece in this lye bath and sometimes it would be in there for weeks, if not months, (2) just taking it out every now and again, and cleaning some of the crud off, putting it back in, taking it out, cleaning some of the crud off, putting it back in and (3) then the final step was the electrolysis. After the electrolysis, (4) I would clean it, and (5) then season it, and then boom! It’s ready to go.”

“So it goes from sitting in the ground in someone’s farm yard to someone’s table!”

Gate marks like this found at the O’Neil Cast Iron Museum, are imperfections, but also prove a piece is an true antique. Photo by S. Lamb Photography, courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. Tips for Buying Vintage Cast Iron

It can be overwhelming to buy cast iron, especially for a newbie. Here are a few tips from the pros on what to look for:

1. Gate Marks Gate marks mean it’s the real deal: older than 1880 and a true antique. Gate marks were remnants from the casting process, when the piece would “break the mold.” It looks like a slit or gash. If you find cast iron with a gate mark, it hardly matters who the maker is — it’s valuable!

2. Heat Rings Cast iron pans were originally designed to fit on top of wood stoves. Heat rings are around the pan’s rim were meant to raise the cookware so it didn’t directly touch the stovetop. Cast iron with heat rings is vintage because it was made with wood stoves in mind.

3. Maker’s Marks Of course Maker’s marks are great ways to identify vintage cast iron and to learn more about a piece’s history. This Pan Handler blog post has a great post on identifying both marked and unmarked antique cast iron cookware.

4. Warping Over time from improper misuse or storage, it’s possible for vintage cast iron to become warped. If cookware is warped, it won’t distribute heat evenly, which kind of defeats the purpose. Cast iron collector Culinary Fanatic has an informative video on identifying warped cast iron.

5. Made in America Label If you go to many estate sales, you’re bound to come across cast iron with “Made In America” stamped on the underside. This means it’s likely the piece was made around 1960 or afterwards.

“So that means it’s a little less vintage, but you can also be sure that the pan was made in America and it’s not a cheap Asian pan,” said Anna H.

Rare vintage Wapak Indian head medallion cast iron skillets at the O’Neil Cast Iron Museum. Photo by S. Lamb Photography, courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. The Reasoning Behind Seasoning

Spend five minutes around cast iron lovers, and you’ll hear about seasoning. What the heck is it? Isn’t seasoning the process of adding flavor to food? Yes and no.

Seasoning is also the process of coating a cast iron pan or skillet’s surface with oil and cooking it off in order to produce a non-stick surface you can use again and again. The high heat causes the oil to solidify (forming a “polymer”) on top of the surface, producing that nice thick coating.

After very thinly oiling the pan (so thin it might not look like it’s there), place it face down in the oven and bake on ~350 degrees for about an hour.

Then you rub the surface dry with clean dry towels (make sure it isn’t still hot) to soak up the excess oil The surface should be matte, not glossy. Preseason if needed until you get the finish you’re looking for.

Know that cooking with it too will produce the coating (about five times should do the trick—an incentive start makin’ bacon) so don’t hesitate to get started, especially when much of the cast iron you buy, whether vintage (from a dealer) or modern, will be pre-seasoned and ready to go. Some aficionados swear by flaxseed (while others say it flakes off), but other oils includ canola, coconut, and shortening. The debate lives on.

Vintage Cast Iron Brand Names

Not all cast iron brands are the same. There’s a reason you hear about the same brands over and over (Griswold, Wagner, Wapak, Lodge). They’ve stood the test of time. Of course some vintage cast iron brands are no longer in production, and there are a lot of fakes out there to be aware of.

“To me, Griswold is the most collectible of the cast iron cookware, to me the Griswold pieces are the finest made, the most beautiful and in my experience as a seller, that is also the brand that most people want, most buyers want,” said Mary T.

Anna H also likes Griswold cast iron: “I like the feel of their pans, and the sizes work well for me and they have a solid reputation and they’re very collectible. . .  I also have one particular pan, Oneta, and that was by the manufacturer Wapak, and there aren’t a lot of those around, but the pan I have is so light and is such a delight to work with,” she said.

And don’t forget about Lodge, if you’re into the new cast iron. (The cast iron collectors we talked to weren’t).

“We do have some Lodge, it seems like the hot thing everybody wants, but mostly old Lodge,” said Marg O’Neil, cast iron collector and Cast Iron Museum curator.

Cast iron collectors from all over get together at auctions and conventions to buy pieces, share knowledge, and make friends. Photo courtesy of The Pan Handler LLC. The World’s Only Cast Iron Museum

Did you know there’s a family-owned Cast Iron Museum? It’s in Tacoma, Washington, run by Larry and Marg O’Neil, avid cast iron collectors. They have so much cast iron—we’re talking 13, 000 pieces of cast iron (!!) that they had to build a 3500 square foot building, and then another building across twenty acres to showcase and sell their finds.

They got into collecting cast iron because of Larry, but they also like the camaraderie, a big reason why people become collectors. The O’Neils belong to a wide network of cast iron lovers, the Griswold and Cast Iron Cookware Association(G&CICA), who get together several times a year to share pieces, ask questions, share knowledge, and make friendships.

“We just had a convention in Springfield, Missouri, so we had a Show and Tell. People bring items and they say, We don’t know what this is, or maybe you don’t find very many of them, and then we have a couple seminars on, like one was on Erie skillets and another one was on G.F. Filley pans, and then we have an auction,” said Marg.

Whether you get into vintage cast iron for the craftsmanship, the cooking, the camaraderie or its interesting cultural past, it’s a hobby worth pursuing and a way to connect to something larger.

Do you look for vintage cast iron when you go to estate sales? What pieces have you been lucky enough to find? Talk about it here!

July 1940. Berrien County, Michigan. "Migrant mother of family from Arkansas in roadside camp of cherry pickers."

I love thinking about the history of the old pans that come into our hands. I love to think about where they have been and what they might have cooked, for whom. I am very proud to be a part of preservation of these pieces of American history, and I love sending these restored pieces off to homes where they will be used, enjoyed, and handed down through the generations.

Earlier this year I spent some time looking through old Library of Congress photos and finding pictures of cast iron cookware in use. I wrote a blog post about it, which you can find here.

Here are a few more photos I came across. Captions in quotes are as printed with the photos. Enjoy, and just imagine where your old pans have been!

 

1808, “Cooking Dinner for the Hungry Soldiers.” Big cast iron pots over the fire.

“Hermit’s House.” Cast iron pans on wall. Circa 1865.

“The kitchen of a pullman car.” Circa 1882.

The Lone Star State circa 1901. “Camp wagon on a Texas roundup.” Dry plate glass negative by William Henry Jackson, Detroit Publishing Co

“Cast Iron” cartoon cigarette card, 1901.

“Approximately 10 irons on stove.” Circa 1902 – 1914. More irons on nearby table, too!

“Kitchen with stove, sink, and utensils.” Circa 1902 – 1914

“Kitchen with stove (having two irons and kettle and hot water tank above it), cupboard (filled with dishes), and table (covered with figured cloth)” Circa 1902 – 1914.

Bethlehem Steel Company. “Cupola for producing cast iron.” Circa 1860 – 1920.

October 1935. “Making cornbread with relief flour. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia.”

“Slum kitchen, Washington D.C.” October 1937. Sad irons on stove along with what looks like a cast iron baking pan.

November 1935. Washington, D.C. “Kitchen in Negro home near Union Station.” 35mm negative by Carl Mydans, Resettlement Administration. Look at all the sad irons on the stove!

June 1937. “Child of Earl Taylor in kitchen of their home near Black River Falls, Wisconsin.” Photo by Russell Lee, Resettlement Administration. Sad iron on stove, cast iron pan on top.

“Tent of migrant stove maker and repairer on U.S. 90 near Jeanerette, Louisiana.” Photo by Russell Lee for the FSA. Cast iron Dutch oven.

Placing bread in deep skillet to bake near Marfa, Texas. May 1939.

Placing coals on lid of dutch oven for baking bread. Roundup near Marfa, Texas. May 1939.

Cook of the SMS Ranch frying meat at chuck wagon on ranch near Spur, Texas. May 1939.

Victuals and frying pan of migrant family along roadside near Henrietta [i.e., Henryetta,] Oklahoma. July 1939.

Placing bread in dutch oven to bake near Marfa, Texas. May, 1939

“Mrs. Wardlow baking corn bread in her dugout basement home. Dead Ox Flat, Malheur County, Oregon.” Oct. 1939.

Count your blessings. According to “The American Consumer Home Front During World War II,” 33% of all Americans had no running water in 1940, 67% had no central heat, 47% had no built-in bathing apparatus in their homes, 48 % did not have interior access to automatic or other washing machines, 48% did not have a refrigerator, and 33% percent cooked with wood or coal (citations omitted).

 

July 1940. Berrien County, Michigan. “Migrant mother of family from Arkansas in roadside camp of cherry pickers.” Sad iron on table.

SHARE THE MEATThe military needed huge amounts of food, too, to feed soldiers, and by late 1942 food at home was running short. Grocery stores started rationing canned goods to customers to prevent hoarding. Meat was in especially short supply. The government limited the amounts shipped to grocers and restaurants and set a “voluntary ration” of two and a half pounds of red meat per adult per week. But stores often could not get even that much, and residents of some cities faced a meatless Christmas. Shoppers in San Diego crossed the border into Mexico in search of full shelves. Time magazine blamed the government’s “blundering” for the shortages.U.S. War Production Board.

October 1942. “‘Share The Meat’ recipes. Braised stuffed heart. Brown the hearts on all sides in fat, then place in a covered baking dish or casserole. Add a half of cup of water, cover closely and cook until tender in a very moderate oven (about 300 degrees Fahrenheit). Calf hearts require about one and a half hours, beef hearts will require much longer — four to five hours to cook till tender.” Photo by Ann Rosener for the Office of War Information

“Bantam, Connecticut. Defense homes. The heating unit is in the kitchen of Fred Heath’s four-room apartment in the new federally-financed homes for eighty families just a few minutes from the Warren McArthur factory in Bantam. The well-insulated coal fire puts steam in the radiators and provides the heat for cooking. The tenants are well-pleased although on several nights when the temperature dropped to ten degrees below zero they were forced to replenish the fuel every two or three hours. That cigarette Fred Heath holds is not tailor-made, by the way–he likes to roll his own.” January 1942, Library of Congress photo.

Daytona Beach, Florida. Bethune-Cookman College. Southern fried steak and onions to be served in the cafeteria for students. February 1943.

“Man and woman at stove cooking.” Circa 1950s.

I am in Rockport, TX visiting my 88-year-old mother Betsy, and my 97-year-old stepfather, Roy. Yes, they are blessed.

I had a nice talk with Roy tonight about the history of cast iron skillets, and showed him the blog post I had written with all the pics about vintage cast iron in use.

Roy told me a story about a group of men he lunches with 1-2x/month. On one occasion when talking about the Great Depression, the other men “glossed over” it. Roy noticed that they all were either not born or were very young during the Great Depression. Roy was 14. He lived it. Not as a provider trying to provide for his family, but…he lived it.

Roy shared this article with me about the depression. He felt it more accurately depicted life as it was during the 1930s in the US.

I wanted to share it with you. So we all remember.

Sometimes it is easier to forget. We shouldn’t.

 

Heart32

I didn’t even know there was a website called “Extra Crispy,” but lo and behold – there is! A few weeks back I was interviewed by a lovely gentleman about waffle irons. There is a lot of interesting information in his article about the history of waffle irons – you can find the entire article here.

I do feel proud to be a part of the cast iron resurgence, and I love these old vintage pans. From the article:

“Mary Theisen, who restores and sells cast iron as The Pan Handler and has a special expertise in Griswold products, says, “I like to think that I’m restoring and putting back into use pieces of American history. So to me, it’s not just a pan, it’s not just any pan, it’s something that could have been around for over a hundred years. I like knowing that I’m using a piece that is not going to be used, abused, and then thrown into a landfill.” Cast iron is also a “greener” alternative given its longevity, and sidesteps any health risks that nonstick coatings might have. “It’s got health benefits with the leaching of iron. It’s not toxic chemicals leaching.” Waffle irons, she says, enjoy particular rushes around certain holidays, such as Griswold’s “star heart”maker that forges heart-shaped waffles. I forget which holiday they are popular around. I think Presidents’ Day?”

Of course, the heart-star waffle irons (as well as our other heart-shaped products such as patty molds and our heart-star gem pan) are a BIG hit around Valentine’s Day. But then, that is close to President’s Day….isn’t it?